Debt bondage even involving debtors' children has been a persistent social problem in the western hills and the Terai, with an estimated 234,600 people or 0.82% of the population considered as enslaved, by The Global Slavery Index in 2016..  These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilization, the first urban culture in South Asia. Other variants found in medieval texts are 'Nepar' and 'Newal'. ; буквенный код NPL Федеративная Демократическая Республика Непал (государство в Гималаях, между Индией и Тибетом; до 28 декабря 2007 г. Королевство Непал; столица Катманду)  Among these groups, strong discomfort is felt at thoughts of eating meat. Severe flooding and landslides cause deaths and disease, destroy farmlands and cripple the transport infrastructure of the country, during the monsoon season each year. , Nepal emphasises greater cooperation in South Asia and actively pushed for the establishment of SAARC, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the permanent secretariat of which, is hosted in Kathmandu.  They have their passports seized, to be returned when the employer grants them leave or terminates their contracts. Now, all three tiers of elections have been accomplished in the country as per the Constitution. ), Garzilli, Enrica, "Nepal, stallo politico e lentezze nella realizzazione del processo di pace e di riconciliazione", in, Garzilli, Enrica, "A Sanskrit Letter Written by Sylvain Lévy in 1925 to Hemarāja Śarmā along with Some Hitherto Unknown Biographical Notes (Cultural Nationalism and Internationalism in the First Half of the 20th Century – Famous Indologists write to the Raj Guru of Nepal – No. Nepal Armed Police Force, a separate paramilitary police organization, works in cooperation with Nepal police in routine security matters; it is intended for crowd control, counter-insurgency and anti-terrorism actions, and other internal matters where use of force may be necessary. Tsampa, flour made from roasted barley or naked barley, is the main staple in the high himalayas. ", "Tibet's Road Ahead: Tibetans lose a haven in Nepal under Chinese pressure", "China urged to let Nepalis work in Taklakot", "Why Nepal's Access to China Ports Matters", "Belt and Road Initiative: Nepal's concern and commitment", "SAARC: Origin, Growth, Potential and Achievements", "Nepal, Bangladesh Can Become Better Trade Partners", "Marking the diplomatic ties between Nepal and Israel", "UNGA vote 'consistent with Nepal's position on Israel, Palestine, "Military expenditure (current USD) | Data", "New chief faces daunting task rebuilding Nepal Army's image", "Thapa to take charge of Nepali Army as acting CoAS", "South Asia :: Nepal – The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency", "Dolpa HQ connected to national road network", "Women promoted to major for first time in NA infantry", "Bhakti Shah – the fight for gay and transgender rights in Nepal", "Nepal is 19th largest receiver of remittances with $8.1 billion", "Unskilled workers dominate Nepali labour force abroad", "More Nepalis going abroad for employment", "South Asia :: Nepal — The World Factbook", "Agricultural Policies and Rural Development in Nepal: An Overview", "Nepalese Foreign Trade: Growth, Composition, and Direction", "Bangladesh, Nepal, Rwanda top India in reducing poverty – study", "World poverty is shrinking rapidly, new index reveals", "Nepal: Irrigation and Water Resource Management", "World Bank: Nepal- Country Overview 2012", "Nepali gov't presents 13.71 bln USD budget for next fiscal year", "Finance Minister Khatiwada worried as ministries fail to spend development budget", "UK should cut aid to Nepal if "endemic" corruption persists: report", "Per capita income to reach $1,400 by 2023-24", "Development Failure: A Critical Review of Three Analyses of Development in Nepal", "A Development Failure: The Development-Conflict Nexus", "Nepal tourism generated Rs240b and supported 1m jobs last year: Report", "Nepal has enough opportunities to tap tourists who visit other South Asian nations", "Nepal's unemployment rate estimated at 11.4 percent", "12 Hostages From Nepal Are Executed in Iraq, a Militant Group Claims", "He narrowly escaped the 2004 Iraq massacre of 12 Nepalis", "Basic minimum wage eludes Nepali migrant workers", "Nepali migrant workers returning home from labour destination countries without wages", "Nepal receiving two dead migrant workers every day for past seven years: Report", "Nepalese Labor Migration—A Status Report", "Labour migration in Nepal (ILO in Nepal)", NEPAL ENERGY SECTOR ASSESSMENT, STRATEGY, AND ROAD MAP, "From a fossil past to an electric future", "More than half of Nepal's electricity imported from India", "NEA to build 10 new hydropower projects", "Nepal fails to meet energy sector targets in the current fiscal", "Connecting Nepal's Rural Poor to Markets", Nepal Telecommunications Authority MIS Report Shrawan, 2076, "Press Council Nepal classifies 833 newspapers, magazines", "Nepal retains its position in press freedom rankings, states RSF report", https://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/en/np/np029en.pdf, http://mohp.gov.np/downloads/Constitution%20of%20Nepal_2072_Nepali.pdf, "Hindu Demographics & Denominations (Part One)", "Eid highlights Nepal's religious tolerance", "NEPAL-2018-INTERNATIONAL-RELIGIOUS-FREEDOM-REPORT", "Community-based School Management The Role Politics Plays", "Minister Pokhrel urges teachers to be loyal to their schools", "Types of scholarships provided to Nepalese students by government of Nepal", "Medical colleges charging extra fees even from govt scholarship holders", "More students seeking 'no objection' to study abroad", "Nepal ranks second in lung ailment deaths", Nepal Burden of Disease 2017: A Country Report based on the Global Burden of Disease 2017 Study, "Study reveals high prevalence of non-communicable diseases in Nepal", "Nearly half of Nepali children still malnourished", "Maternal mortality reduction target hard to meet for Nepal: Officials", "Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births) - Nepal | Data", "Nepal far from hitting contraceptive target", "Health insurance plan yet to cover 38 districts in Nepal", "The Current State of Maternal Health in Nepal", "Government has been trying to eliminate open defecation for over a decade.  Stella Kramrisch (1964) mentions a substratum of a race of pre-Dravidians and Dravidians, who were in Nepal even before the Newars, who formed the majority of the ancient inhabitants of the valley of Kathmandu.. , After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, and storage of agricultural surplus appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan. Garzilli, Enrica, "The Interplay between Gender, Religion and Politics, and the New Violence against Women in Nepal", in J. Dragsbæk Schmidt and T. Roedel Berg (eds.  In the late 15th century, Malla princes divided their kingdom in four — Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur in the valley and Banepa to the east. Pahad is the mountain region that does not generally contain snow. Subalpine coniferous forests cover the 3,000 m to 3,500 m range, dominated by Oak (particularly in the west), Eastern Himalayan fir, Himalayan pine and Himalayan hemlock; Rhododendron is common as well. US Government Reports. During his rule, the Buddhists wreaked vengeance on the Hindu Brahmins (especially the followers of Shaivism) for the harm they had received earlier from the Shankaracharya. Why Democracy -1 | 10 Questions MCQ Test has questions of Class 9 preparation.  Immediately south of the emerging Himalayas, plate movement created a vast trough that rapidly filled with river-borne sediment and now constitutes the Indo-Gangetic Plain.  Nepal Army is primarily used for routine security of critical assets, anti-poaching patrol of national parks, counterinsurgency, and search and rescue during natural disasters; it also undertakes major construction projects. The sixth point of the treaty directly questions the degree of independence of Nepal. The context of Kirats ruling in Nepal before Licchavi dynasty and after Mahispal (Avir) dynasty are depicted in different manuscripts. Descendent of Sanskrit, Nepali is written in Devanagari script.  Dal-bhat, centred around steamed rice is the most common example. Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, and friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960.  Nepali sports is hindered by a lack of infrastructure, funding, corruption, nepotism and political interference. , Nepal pursues a policy of "balanced relations" with the two giant immediate neighbours, India and China; the 1950 Treaty of Peace and Friendship with India provides for a much closer relationship.  The Gopalas were followed by Kiratas who ruled for over 16 centuries by some accounts. Rana rulers were titled "Shree Teen" and "Maharaja", whereas Shah kings were "Shree Panch" and "Maharajadhiraja". Terai is the lowland region containing some hill ranges. The timber of domestic structures are finely carved as with their religious counterparts. FederalStates in which the federal government shares power with semi-independent regional governments. Likewise, the federal, provincial and … The census also noted some 1.9 million absentee people, over a million more than in 2001; most are male labourers employed overseas.  Many Nepalese are believed to be working under slavery-like conditions, and Nepal spends billions of rupees rescuing stranded workers, on remuneration to the indebted families of the dead, and in legal costs for those arrested in foreign countries.  It usually ranks in the bottom quarter in the FIFA world rankings. Citizenship and Country Documents. According to legendary accounts, the early rulers of Nepal were the Gopālavaṃśi (Gopal Bansa) or "cowherd dynasty", who presumably ruled for about five centuries.  Each local unit is composed of wards. Suruwal, simply translated as a pair of trousers, is an alternative to and, more recently, replacement for dhoti, kachhad (Magars) or Lungi (Tharus); it is traditionally much wider above the knees but tapers below, to fit tightly at the ankles, and is tied to the waist with a drawstring.  Internally, the poor state of development of the road system makes access to markets, schools, and health clinics a challenge. Many laws remain unenforced in practice. Life expectancy at birth is estimated at 71 years as of 2017, 153rd highest in the world, up from 54 years in the 1990s. Literary works in many other languages began to be produced.  The distribution of wealth among the Nepalis is consistent with that in many developed and developing countries: the highest 10% of households control 39.1% of the national wealth and the lowest 10% control only 2.6%.  Nepal came to be established as a land of spirituality and refuge in the intervening centuries, played an important role in transmitting Buddhism to East Asia via Tibet, and helped preserve Hindu and Buddhist manuscripts. Emperor Ashoka made a pilgrimage to Lumbini and erected a pillar at Buddha's birthplace, the inscriptions on which mark the starting point for properly recorded history of Nepal. However, an absolute chronology can not be established, as even the oldest texts may contain anonymous contributions dating as late as the early modern period.  Ram Baran Yadav of the Nepali Congress became the first President of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal on July 23, 2008.  Lack of proper infrastructures and teaching materials, and a high student-to-teacher ratio, as well as politicization of school management committees and partisan unionization among both students and teachers, present a hurdle to progress.  In late 2018, Nepal had a total of 20,800 confirmed refugees, 64% of them Tibetan and 31% Bhutanese. Prithvi Narayan Shah (c. 1779–1875) was the ninth generation descendant of Dravya Shah (1559–1570), the founder of the ruling house of Gorkha. , The Hindu practice of Sati, in which a widow sacrificed herself in the funeral pyre of her husband, was banned in 1919, and slavery was officially abolished in 1924.  The Bhutanese Lhotsampa refugees began arriving in the 1980s and numbered more than 110,000 by the 2000s.  Nepal's foreign exchange remittances of US$8.1 billion in 2018, the 19th largest in the world and constituting 28.0% of GDP, were contributed to its economy by millions of workers primarily in India, the middle east and East Asia, almost all of them unskilled labourers. The referendum was held in May 1980, and the Panchayat system gained a narrow victory. The best known include: Dashain, Tihar, Teej, Chhath, Maghi, Sakela, Holi, Eid ul-Fitr, Christmas, and the Nepali new year. Politicians were placed under house arrest, phone and internet lines were cut, and freedom of the press was severely curtailed.  Traditional dresses of many pahari ethnic groups are Daura-Suruwal or similar, with patuka, a dhaka topi and a coat for men, and Gunyu-cholo or similar, with patuka and sometimes a scarf for women. It remains the only multi-party, fully democratic nation in the world ruled by a communist party. Until May 28, 2008, Nepal was a constitutional monarchy. Background. Gunakama Deva, who ruled from 949 to 994 CE, commissioned the construction of a big wooden shelter, built from the wood of a single tree, called Kasthamandapa. The provinces have unicameral parliamentary Westminster system of governance. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), of which it is a founding member.  After the Maoists entered the political process in 2006, they emerged as the third largest party. He was succeeded by his son, Vijayakama Deva, who introduced the worship of the Naga and Vasuki. By 55,000 years ago, the first modern humans, or Homo sapiens, had arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa, where they had earlier evolved. As a result, riots broke out and the Nepal Telecommunications building was set on fire; police opened fire at the crowd, killing several persons. On that date, the constitution was altered by the Constituent Assembly to make the country a republic. ", Garzilli, Enrica, "A Sanskrit Letter Written by Sylvain Lévi in 1923 to Hemarāja Śarmā Along With Some Hitherto Unknown Biographical Notes (Cultural Nationalism and Internationalism in the First Half of the 21st Cent. On February 1, 2005, King Gyanendra dismissed the entire government and assumed full executive powers, declaring a state of emergency to quash the revolution. Prithvi Narayan Shah succeeded his father Nara Bhupal Shah to the throne of Gorkha in 1743 CE. People raised voices for a federal system of government.  Despite efforts, standardization and development of dandi biyo has not been achieved, while Kabaddi, as a professional sport, is still in its infancy in Nepal. The ethnicity is her inherent existence. Once Japan entered the conflict, sixteen battalions of the Nepali Army fought on the Burmese front. 1846 - Nepal falls under sway of hereditary chief ministers known as Ranas, who dominate the monarchy and cut off country from outside world. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005. After decades of rivalry between the medieval kingdoms, modern Nepal was unified in the latter half of the 18th century, when Prithvi Narayan Shah, the ruler of the small principality of Gorkha, formed a unified country from a number of independent hill high states. Nepal is governed according to the Constitution which came into effect on Sept 20, 2015, replacing the Interim Constitution of 2007. By the 4th century CE, much of Nepal was under the influence of the Gupta Empire. The government's budget is about $13.71 billion (FY 2019/20); expenditure of infrastructure development budget, most of it contributed by foreign aid, usually fails to meet the target. The terms 'Nepal' and 'Newar' are variations of the same term. Similarly, the Constituent Assembly elected Pushpa Kamal Dahal (Prachanda) of the Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as the first Prime Minister of the republic on August 15, 2008, favoring him over Sher Bahadur Deuba of the Nepali Congress. Nepal was then declared as the Democratic Federal Republic by the Interim Constitution-2063 BS. Daura-Suruwal and Gunyu-Cholo were the national dresses for men and women respectively until 2011 when they were removed to eliminate favouritism. Married Hindu women wear tika, sindur, pote and red bangles. Following the success of Indian Independence Movement which Nepalese activists had taken part in, with India's support and cooperation of King Tribhuvan, Nepali Congress was successful in toppling the Rana regime, establishing a parliamentary democracy. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire. After a decade of power wrangling between the king and the government, King Mahendra (ruled 1955–1972) scrapped the democratic experiment in 1960, and a "partyless" Panchayat system was created to govern Nepal. 95% of children have access to iodized salt, and 86% of children aged 6 – 59 months receive Vitamin A prophylaxis.  Rana rule was marked by tyranny, debauchery, economic exploitation and religious persecution. Most of Nepal's mountaineering earning comes from Mount Everest, which is more accessible from the Nepalese side.  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