Isotopes: Phosphorus has 22 known isotopes. The main organic functions of phosphorus are the following: – Formation of the bones and the teeth: Phosphorus along with calcium takes part in the formation of bones and teeth. Density: 1.82 grams per cubic centimeter 5. For Phosphorus, the chemical symbol is P. Phosphorus is essential for life. Wikipedia It is highly poisonous, with a lethal dose of ~50 mg. White phosphorus should be stored under water and handled with forceps. Public domain. The two main forms of phosphorus are white phosphorus and red phosphorus. Owing to its pyrophoricity, white phosphorus is used as an additive in napalm. Phosphoric acid, in turn, is used in the manufacture phosphatic fertilizers such as triple superphate. While the term “phosphorescence” is derived from the ability of white phosphorus to glow faintly upon exposure to oxygen, the current chemical understanding is that this phenomenon is actually chemiluminescence, a mechanism of light emission distinct from phosphorescence. White phosphorus is converted to red phosphorus when exposed to sunlight or heated in its own vapor to 250°C. As evidence of the link between phosphorus and terrestrial life, elemental phosphorus was historically first isolated from human urine, and bone ash was an important early phosphate source. Phosphorus after this treatment is amorphous. For example, freshly prepared, bright-red phosphorus is highly reactive and ignites at about 300 °C, though it is still more stable than white phosphorus, which ignites at about 30 °C. Brand's technique was replaced by Carl Wilhelm Scheele's method of extracting phosphorus from bones. Its vapor is colorless, with a density = 4.328. Commercial red phosphorus is amorphous with pyramidal phosphorus linked in a random network. It glows in the dark and is spontaneously flammable when exposed to air. Black phosphorus is obtained by heating white phosphorus under high pressures (about 12,000 standard atmospheres, or 1.2 gigapascals). Unlike white phosphorus, red phosphorus does not ignite readily in air. Trisodium phosphate is used as a cleaner, water softener, and scale/corrosion inhibitor. Atomic weight (average mass of the atom): 30.973762 4. Physical properties are usually those that can be observed using our senses such as color, luster, freezing point, boiling point, melting point, density, hardness, and odor. Also, as much as 0.155% P is added to cold rolled, motor lamination steels to reduce AC core loss. Phosphorus is used for the preparation of phosphorous compounds like P 2 O 5, PCl 3, PCl 5 and phosphoric acid. GNU FDL. Properties: The melting point of phosphorus (white) is 44.1°C, boiling point (white) is 280°C, specific gravity (white) is 1.82, (red) 2.20, (black) 2.25-2.69, with a valence of 3 or 5. The two most common allotropes are white phosphorus and red phosphorus. Phosphorus is an element that one will under no circumstances find freely in our environment. There is approximately twice the calcium than phosphorus … Phosphate deficiency is called hypophosphatemia. Phosphorus(III) oxide dissolves slowly in cold water to form phosphorous acid, H 3 PO 3. White phosphorus exhibits the most activity Red and black phosphorus are considerably more passive in chemical reactions The oxidation of white phosphorus occurs through a chain reaction. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our. Low phosphate levels are an important limit to growth in some aquatic sys… Phosphorus is essential for life. Wikipedia CC BY-SA. 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