Biodiversity Status in Ethiopia and Challenges - - - Husen et al. The benefits of agroforestry practices in terms of drought resistance was also rated high as trees can tolerate short and longer term water stress while providing all the environmental, nutritional and economic benefits to the practitioners and the locality (Figure 7, Figure 8). The region is known for its diverse and immense biodiversity resources that contributed for healthy ecosystem functions, sustainable livelihoods development and enhanced food security status of the region [5] . The general model of agroforestry practices considers shrubs, crops, perennials, trees, livestock, etc. These Frankincense is a moderate growing flowering plant native to the tropical regions of Africa and Asia. Demissew, S., 1993. During a recent visit to Ethiopia, Global Trees Campaign staff encountered many amazing trees and identified exciting opportunities for tree conservation efforts. Butter fruit 4. are native plant examples of direct dyes. As many of the indigenous communities are highly reliant on indigenous medicines extracted from trees, the practices have played and are playing a significant role in maintaining the health of communities in a productive way. The Government of Canada Agriculture and Agro-food Agency [11] mentioned as agroforestry practices are essential resources to combat climate because of their role in sequestering carbon and other greenhouse gases. Artistic thatched roof in the Ankober region. List of some scantly researched indigenous fruit trees/shrubs of Tropical African origin. Agroforestry has played and is still playing a key role in the conservation and management of land resources in a sustainable way. Policies should also consider mechanisms to engage women in decision- making since that will help to improve the adoption of home garden agroforestry practices as well. Findings of the study showed that home garden, intercropping and livestock based agroforestry practices of the area are contributing a lot in maintaining food security at the household level through the provision edible items from backyard throughout the year. Then data was transcribed and analyzed by making use of descriptive statistics on excel sheet and through content analysis. arabiensis, an important malaria vector in Ethiopia. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:AGFO.0000028986.37502.7c, https://doi.org/10.4172/2168-9776.1000163, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1608-4, http://www.fao.org/forestry/agroforestry/80338/en/, https://en.reset.org/knowledge/agroforestry-and-its-benefits. Warkensh Solbe, a beneficiary of the Indigenous Tree Species Restoration, Local Climate Change Adaptation and Indigenous Livelihood Enhancement Project, plants Anka trees within her farm and Koso trees around her home. This multi-purpose root crop is … In this practice trees like Moringa are widely planted as they supplement the household’s major source of meal throughout the year. gardens are the widely practiced indigenous agroforestry activities. Fruits like Mango, Papaya, Lemon, False banana (‘Enset’), Orange, Avocado and Banana are also serving as sources of supplementary food and income generation opportunities. Caraway, carcade, cardamom, chat, coriander, incense, myrrh, and red pepper are common. Figure 3. SynsepalumMagic plant 9. Today, Abraham has been weaving for four years, and the profits he has generated have gone toward supporting his young son. So this study is … There are 5 endemic genera (marked red) but no endemic families. Farmers' Indigenous knowledge: Cultivation, Utilization and classification, of Enset in North Omo (Ethiopia) Kefale Alemu Introduction Enset (Ensete ventricosum) is a perennial herbaceous root crop with long broad leaves and bulky pseudostem. The indigenous knowledge and practices of agroforestry, however, are being eroded as a result of the increased need of the ever increasing human population. By reviewing much of the recent work on indigenous knowledge, the paper suggests that a number of problems and tensions have resulted in indigenous knowledge not being In some areas, the mountains are covered with shrubs such aspyracantha, jasmine, poinsettia, and a varied assortment of evergreens. Box 2035, Mekelle, Ethiopia b Mekelle University, Department of Biology, P.O. Agroforestry ecosystems harbour a variety of life forms functioning together which in turn provide the services that enable the wellbeing of humanity and other life forms. Chickens are also reared around homesteads. According to the respondents, as of very recent during the ‘Derg’ regime, the establishment of the socialist system based Producer’s Cooperatives (‘Ye-Amrachoch Hibret Sira Mahiber’) also contributed a lot for the growth and expansion of agroforestry practices in the area. Indigenous Agroforestry Practices in Southern Ethiopia: The Case of Lante, Arba Minch This phenomenon has forced farmers to stock and combine different species of trees which are of different use and livestock in that allowable plot of backyard land so as to supplement the food and other demands of the household. Agroforestry practices have also contributed a lot in the protection of watershed services and maximize the production systems [3] . These benefits will have an impact and environmental benefits contribution at the farm scale, local and regional levels. (1997a), had studied and compiled information on the indigenous plant uses by Anywaa, Majangir and Nuer people in Gambella Regional State. 4.3. Lante being one of the Kebeles located in the lowland areas has a total population of about 7479 (female 3844). The Gamo people live in the highland area and primarily practice mixed agriculture and weaving. Ethiopia has a large variety of indigenous plant and animal species. Common plants such as coriander, myrrh, cardamom, chat and caraway also populate Ethiopia’s diverse landscapes. Hence, agroforestry systems can be categorized as silvopastoral (forestry with domestic animals), agrisilvicultural (growing crops and trees) and agrosilvopastoral (crops, forestry and animals). The main Indigenous Plants of Ethiopia. African breadfruit Treculia africana Moraceae W, C, E 2. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Gindeberet district, Western Ethiopia S. Zerabruk a, G. Yirga b,⁎ a Mekelle University, Department of Chemistry, P.O. In the present investigation, extracts from indigenous Ethiopian plants have been tested to assess their larvicidal and adulticidal properties when applied to the larvae and adults of An. also known as Bagana (Sidamo), is a plant of the genus Amorphophallus. This study was held in Lante, one of the Kebeles (the smallest administration unit) of Arba Minch Zuriya district of Southern Ethiopia so as to explore the indigenous agroforestry practices along with its present contribution for food security and local economic development. 2012.pdf Content available from Kamal C. Semwal: Book chepter Biodiversity Status in Ethiopia and Challenges.pdf It is also worthy to note that these figures doesn’t include the amount of carbon which will be stored in the roots below the ground that could amount 50% - 75% of the total stored on the other parts of the tree above the ground. Before the project, she noticed how bare the land was. In terms of dietary diversification agroforestry has given more varieties of food than other forms of agriculture. Indigenous communities have developed knowledge of ecosystem management that has evolved through an intricate manner. In the South it is not uncommon to see about ten different types of trees in the backyard of the smallholder farmers, mostly dominated by multipurpose species which have nutritional, economic and economic importance. Monkey kola (yellow) 6. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants in Ethiopia is unevenly distributed among community members. Some, however, also preferred the field crops production since they considered harvesting a reasonable amount of produce in a specific period of time as an advantage (Figure 3). Thus, agroforestry has played to cope up with disaster by building the resilience of the community in times of drought and rain failure. In Zimbabwe the colonial era was characterised by huge economic disparities. In the region of the former capital of Ethiopia, Ankober, rural communities live in hamlets of enclosed farms. (2016) Indigenous Agroforestry Practices in Southern Ethiopia: The Case of Lante, Arba Minch. Livestock related agroforestry practices in Lante. Each system can be composed of different agroforestry practices that can be practiced in a particular location or region where there will be environmental, biological and economic linkages and interactions within the different tree and non-tree elements of the system. Based on the coping mechanism potentials of agroforestry and modern agriculture, the lion’s share of the respondents showed their preference to continue agroforestry practices than field crops production. St. John's wort. Ground truthing of this practice. The tuberous roots are harvested and cooked for a … Today, nearly seven thousand plant species, one thousand of which are endemic to Ethiopia, are Farmers' Indigenous knowledge: Cultivation, Utilization and classification, of Enset in North Omo (Ethiopia) Kefale Alemu Introduction Enset (Ensete ventricosum) is a perennial herbaceous root crop with long broad leaves and bulky pseudostem. Open Access Library Journal Vol.03 No.12(2016), Article ID:73000,12 pages 10.4236/oalib.1103278. Most of the produce and marketable items are transported on the back of donkeys and donkey drawn carts. Thus, many rural people of Ethiopia usually feed on wild edible plants for survival during food shortages [18]. The project has given her a greater understanding of the value of the trees in fertilizing the soil and increasing crop yields. The average proportion of the food insecure world population has decreased from 37% to 18%, and the availability of food has enhanced in the developing world. I. Mango trees, Enset (false banana), Moringa, Papaya, etc. The woodland vegetation in western Ethiopia provides many resources to the inhabitants. Traditional houses Ethiopia: Sedentary Guji pastoralist huts in hamlet at Borana Plain, Ethiopia. Agroforestry has been practiced for centuries in different parts of the world by making use of indigenous technical knowledge. Only 500 Walia Ibex still exist in the Semien Mountains of Ethiopia, both due to poaching … Livestock production forms the major part of the livelihoods of the rural communities. gardens for cultivation of multipurpose plants and finding markets for potential home garden products needs to be followed up. In times of rainfall and water shortage, the trees will always be able to provide edible fruits since they will be able to get moisture from the underground water. Other trees such as Ficus and Olive species are also grown in the backyard since they serve as medicinal plants. The poster tries to mark up the "hotspots" of Ethiopia's agrobiodiversity across landscapes and farming systems. It has also enabled the communities to be empowered economically as they can always find to be cashed and fulfill household needs. In some areas, the mountains are covered with shrubs such as pyracantha, jasmine, poinsettia, and a varied assortment of evergreens. Walia Ibex. Evidence shows that many of the indigenous communities and practitioners have continued on the traditional management ways and practices of natural resources. This is mainly because of the fact that, during that regime each individual household was allowed to own a very small area of land at their backyard for their private use as a result of the communalism of resources ideology that was strategized at that time. INTRODUCTION Ethiopia is … Natural dye materials that produce durable, strong colors and do not require the addition of other substances to obtain the desired outcome are called substantive or direct dyes. The trees are believed to create conducive microclimate for the proper development of the undergrowth as they will be serving as windbreak and reducing the heat effects of the tropics overhead sun. The role of agroforestry on current Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations through climate change adaptation and mitigation is getting explicit. Planting these indigenous tree species have shown her the importance of taking care of the environment. 2003). The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation [9] had defined agroforestry as “a collective name for land-use systems and technologies where woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos, etc.) The leaf fall which will stay on the surface also serves to lower down the devastating effects of rainfall drop splash and erosion. The lakes in the Great Rift Valley region abound with numerous species of birds, and wild animals are … plant products [21] particularly in the indigenous flora of lesser studied countries like Ethiopia. 3.2 The Need for Transferring Useful Indigenous Knowledge and Practices in Ethiopia (Wossenu Yimam, Addis Ababa University) Ethiopia is very rich in different indigenous knowledge systems in such areas as architecture, medicine, agriculture and cottage industry. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, Received: December 5, 2016; Accepted: December 23, 2016; Published: December 26, 2016. Giant lobelia, endemic. The flowers have 4 to 5 imbricate sepals with equal, distinct petals. many others. Part III: Anti-fertility activity of 70 medicinal plants. The benefits of agroforestry practices also can have an economic dimension since it helps to maximize agricultural production by reducing soil erosion, water and organic matter losses. Monkey kola (white) ,, 7. Because these species are high in tannic acid, they do not require additional substances to be added for the dye to attach to fibers and form a durable bond. Sumac (Rhus spp.) Vegetable crops production is also another encouraging activity observed in the area. Indigenous Knowledge, Agroforestry, Lante, Home Garden, Intercropping, Livestock, Southern Ethiopia. The communities involved were Malla and Manja. Desta, B., 1994. Indigenous agroforestry practices form the livelihoods history of Southern Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, held in Lante in order to explore the indigenous agroforestry practices so that the knowledge and practices of the locality can be conserved and scaled up in other parts of the country and beyond. A description of 326 species of 158 genera and 68 families (including naturalized exotics), their native and trade names, data on distribution, ecology, wood properties and uses, propagation etc., with a key to families and genera, and 129 line drawings, preceded by a description of the chief natural plant communities of Ethiopia [cf. Ethiopian traditional herbal drugs. The lakes in the Great Rift Valley region abound with numerous species of birds, and wild animals are found in … It is a growing environmental and economic threat to the county. Figure 5. The Kebele has an average altitudinal range of 1175 - 1267 meter above sea level. Maize another important staple crop of the area is also cultivated in this system. Intercropping Agroforestry Practices, This practice is mainly carried out on farmlands. 5. Agroforestry, the integration of trees in agricultural activities has the capacity to increase soil fertility, nutrient recycling, reduce evaporation, and reduce land degradation from erosion, carbon sequestration and improvement of water quality. non-agroforestry practices (Figure 8). Browse the Member States interactive platform. The litter mass is also believed to improve the physical characteristics of the soil and thereof better infiltration opportunities coupled with ground water recharging. indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants in Ethiopia is unevenly distributed among each community members. It requires the integrated approach of sustainable land use models in order to lift up the living standards of the wider agriculture based portion of the world population. Recently, Abraham's son asked if his father could cut down an older Koso tree to make him a bed. and walnut (Juglans spp.) In most parts of Ethiopia, wild edible plants are a recov-ering part of the feeding habits of many communities [33]. 4.4. His father taught him how to weave and secured all of the necessary equipment for him to begin his own business. It is very common to observe multipurpose trees, fruit trees, and vegetables along with livestock in the backyard of many households. I. INTRODUCTION Ethiopia is … 2012.pdf Content available from Kamal C. Semwal: Book chepter Biodiversity Status in Ethiopia and Challenges.pdf Mengistu Wube (1995), Tesfaye Awas et al. This all can prove as agroforestry practices to play a pivotal role in offering ecosystem services which sustain the wellbeing of humans. Cattle production is the major livestock activity. Namely, these are Boswellia sacra, Boswellia frereana, Boswellia serrata, and Boswellia papyrifera. Hygiene Abyssinica. Trees have also a magnificent contribution in fixing nitrogen that can increase agricultural productivity. medicinal plants with respect to allopathic medicine, medicinal plants regained a wide appreciation (Ahmad et al., 2009). Once established, agroforestry practices also need less intensive farm management activities and this has favored the local communities to have more time to perform other off-farm income generation activities. Agroforestry systems and practices are providing various ecosystem services and environmental benefits that have local and regional importance [2] . Then data were transcribed and analysed by descriptive statistics. Invasive alien plant species are not native to Ethiopia and threaten its native plants and biodiversity. Extended family home complexes near Ankober. 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